Мой прогресс

2. Чтение

Формат ответа: цифра или несколько цифр, слово или несколько слов. Вопросы на соответствие "буква" - "цифра" должны записываться как несколько цифр. Между словами и цифрами не должно быть пробелов или других знаков.

Примеры ответов: 7 или здесьисейчас или 3514

Раскрыть Скрыть

Чтение 12-18

8 заданий

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12–18. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

For almost 125 years, the secrecy surrounding the recipe for Coca-Cola has been one of the world’s great marketing tricks. As the story goes, the fizzy drink’s famous ‘7X’ formula has remained unchanged since it was developed in 1886. Today, the recipe is entrusted only to two Coke executives, neither of whom can travel on the same plane for fear the secret would go down with them.

Now, one of America’s most celebrated radio broadcasters claims to have discovered the Coke secret. Ira Glass, presenter of the public radio institution This American Life, says he has tracked down a copy of the recipe, the original of which is still supposedly held in a burglar-proof vault at the Sun Trust Bank in Atlanta, Georgia.

The formula was created by John Pemberton, an Atlanta chemist and former Confederate army officer who crafted cough medicines in his spare time. In 1887, he sold the recipe to a businessman, Asa Griggs, who immediately placed it for safekeeping in the Georgia Trust Bank.

Glass came across a recipe that he believes is the secret formula in a back issue of Pemberton’s local paper, the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, while he was researching an entirely different story. Tucked away on an inside page of the 8 February 1979 edition, he stumbled on an article that claimed to have uncovered the closely guarded ‘7X’ formula.

The column was based on information found in an old leather-bound notebook that belonged to Pemberton’s best friend and fellow Atlanta chemist, RR Evans. Glass was intrigued and, after some digging, found that the notebook had been handed down over generations until it reached a chemist in Georgia called Everett Beal, whose widow still possesses it.

The rediscovered recipe includes extract of coca leaves, caffeine, plenty of sugar (it specifies 30 unidentified units thought to be pounds), lime juice, vanilla and caramel. Into that syrup, the all-important ‘7X’ ingredients are added: alcohol and six oils – orange, lemon, nutmeg, coriander, neroli and cinnamon. The formula is very similar to the recipe worked out by Mark Pendergrast who wrote a history of the drink in 1993 called For God, Country & Coca-Cola.

Coke’s secret recipe is, in fact, partly a myth. The soda has changed substantially over time. Cocaine, a legal stimulant in Pemberton’s day, was removed from the drink in 1904 after mounting public unease about the drug. Extract of coca leaves is still used but only after the cocaine has been removed.

In 1980, the company replaced sugar, squeezed from beet and cane, with the cheaper corn sweetener that is often found in American food and drink. Coke fans were not impressed.

Despite such occasional controversies, one element has remained constant: Coke’s commitment to keeping its own secret. Speculation about the recipe has been a popular talking point for more than a century, proving good for business. The company has reacted to the This American Life story in a way that has been typical of its commercial strategy since the 19th century. “Many third parties have tried to crack our secret formula. Try as they might, they’ve been unsuccessful,” Coca-Cola’s Kerry Tressler said.


12. The best title reflecting the message of the story probably is

  1. Coca-Cola secret recipe revealed?
  2. Tracking down the famous recipe.
  3. The secret recipe is a fraud.
  4. The History of The Coca-Cola Company.


13. Who is supposed to know the Coke secret recipe nowadays?

  1. RR Evans.
  2. The director of Atlanta Sun Trust Bank.
  3. Certain Coca-Cola executives.
  4. A broadcaster.


14. How did Ira Glass learn about the recipe?

  1. Accidentally reading an article in an old Atlanta paper.
  2. Studying an old notebook that belonged to Pemberton.
  3. Talking to a relative of John Pemberton.
  4. Working in Atlanta archives.


15. Which of the following does NOT belong to the famous ‘7X’ ingredients?

  1. Alcohol.
  2. Orange oil.
  3. Caffeine.
  4. Nutmeg oil.


16. Why might the secret recipe be considered a myth?

  1. The company has been regularly changing the ingredients.
  2. The quality of the ingredients has been changing.
  3. It has never been a secret.
  4. The recipe has never existed.


17. What disappointed Coca-Cola fans in 1980?

  1. The price of the drink went up with the price of sugar.
  2. Sugar was removed from the drink.
  3. The recipe of the drink was revealed.
  4. Beet and cane sugar was replaced with the corn one.


18. The phrase “proving good for business” in the last paragraph means that the rumors about the recipe …

  1. helped to keep the recipe in secret.
  2. were supported by the company.
  3. helped the company’s sales.
  4. provided unnecessary problems for the company.



Сообщить об ошибке

Опишите ошибку в задании подробнее...


Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Yves Henri Donat Matthieu Saint Laurent was born on August 1, 1936, in Oran, Algeria. He grew up in a villa by the Mediterranean with his two younger sisters, Michelle and Brigitte. While his family was relatively well off—his father was a lawyer and insurance broker who owned a chain of cinemas—childhood for the future fashion icon was not easy. Saint Laurent was not popular in school, and was often bullied by schoolmates. As a consequence, Saint Laurent was a nervous child, and sick nearly every day.

He found solace, however, in the world of fashion. He liked to create intricate paper dolls, and by his early teen years he was designing dresses for his mother and sisters. At the age of 17, a whole new world opened up to Saint Laurent when his mother took him to Paris for a meeting she had arranged with Michael de Brunhoff, the editor of French Vogue.

A year later, Saint Laurent, who had impressed de Brunhoff with his drawings, moved to Paris and enrolled at the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture, where his designs gained notice very quickly. De Brunhoff also introduced Saint Laurent to designer Christian Dior, a giant in the fashion world. "Dior fascinated me," Saint Laurent later recalled. "I couldn't speak in front of him. He taught me the basis of my art. Whatever was to happen next, I never forgot the years I spent at his side." Under Dior's tutelage, Saint Laurent's style continued to mature and gain still more notice.

In 1960 Saint Laurent was called back to his home country of Algeria to fight for its independence. He managed to secure an exemption based on health grounds, but when he returned to Paris, Saint Laurent found that his job with Dior had disappeared. The news, at first, was traumatic for the young, fragile designer. Then it became ugly, with Saint Laurent successfully suing his former mentor for breach of contract, and collecting £48,000.

Over the next two decades, Saint Laurent's designs sat atop the fashion world. Models and actresses gushed over his creations. He outfitted women in blazers and smoking jackets, and introduced attire like the pea coat to the runway. His signature pieces also included the sheer blouse and the jumpsuit.

By the 1980s, Yves Saint Laurent was a true icon. He became the first designer to have a retrospective on his work at the Metropolitan Museum in New York City. The fashion house flourished as a money making venture.

12. Yves Saint Laurent didn’t have a happy childhood because

  1. he lived far from the city
  2. his family was very poor
  3. he didn’t get along with his classmates
  4. his father was too busy at work

13. The turning point in his life was

  1. the first time he saw Paris
  2. the acquaintance with a well-known representative of the fashion industry
  3. the moment when his relatives started to wear clothes of his own design
  4. his new hobby of creating dolls

14. At the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture the work of Yves Saint Laurent

  1. aroused interest almost immediately
  2. wasn’t appreciated at the beginning
  3. didn’t find appraisal at all
  4. flourished only after his studies with Christian Dior

15. Why couldn’t Yves Saint Laurent speak in front of Christian Dior?

  1. he was too shy
  2. he didn’t know what to say
  3. he was afraid of Dior
  4. he was in awe with Dior

16. After Yves Saint Laurent returned from Algeria, Christian Dior

  1. made him pay £48,000
  2. continued working with him
  3. broke his dream of becoming a well-known designer
  4. was made to pay a huge sum because of firing Yves

17. The expression “sat atop” in the first line of the 5th paragraph means

  1. was passive and didn’t make any contribution to the fashion development
  2. played the leading role in the fashion world
  3. lost his influence in the fashion world
  4. became less popular in the fashion world

18. During the 80-s the profits of the fashion ‘Saint Laurent’ house were

  1. very modest
  2. critically low
  3. huge
  4. satisfactory

Сообщить об ошибке

Опишите ошибку в задании подробнее...


Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 1218. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

"I don't mind staying after school," I said to Professor Herbert, "but I'd rather you'd whip me with a switch and let me go home early. Pa will whip me anyway for getting home two hours late." "You are too big to whip," said Professor Herbert, "and I have to punish you for climbing up in that cherry tree. The other five boys have paid their dollar each. You have been the only one who has not helped pay for the tree. Can you borrow a dollar?" "I can't," I said. "I'll have to take the punishment. I wouldn't mind. My father believes that if you spare the rod you spoil the child. I'll never be able to make him understand about the cherry tree.”

"You must take the punishment," said Professor Herbert. "You must stay two hours after school today and two hours after school tomorrow. I’m allowing you twenty-five cents an hour. That is good money for a high-school student. You can sweep the schoolhouse floor, wash the blackboards, clean windows. I'll pay the dollar for you."

It was six o'clock when I left the schoolhouse. I hurried home. I saw Pa spreading fodder on the ground to the cattle. That was my job. I ran up to the fence. I said, "Leave that for me, Pa. I'll do it. I'm just a little late." "I see you are," said Pa. He turned and looked at me. His eyes danced fire. "What in the world has kept you so? Why ain't you been here to help me with this work?" I didn't want to tell him why I was late from school. Pa stopped scattering the bundles of fodder. He said, "Why are you getting in here this time of night?" I said, "I had to stay after school."

I couldn't lie to Pa. He'd go to school and find out why I had to stay. If I lied to him it would be too bad for me. I said, "Our biology class went on a field trip today. Six of us boys broke down a cherry tree. We had to give a dollar apiece to pay for the tree. I didn't have the dollar. Professor Herbert is making me work out my dollar. He gives me twenty-five cents an hour. I had to stay in this afternoon. I'll have to stay in tomorrow afternoon!" “Are you telling me the truth?” asked Pa. "Yes," I said, "go and see for yourself." "That's just what I'll do in the morning," said Pa.

It was early when we got to the county high school the next morning. Professor Herbert had just got there. "You're the Professor here, ain't you?" asked Pa. "Yes," said Professor Herbert, "and you are Dave's father." "Yes," said Pa, "just a few things about this school I want to know. I'm trying to make a scholar of Dave. He's the only one out of eleven young ones I've sent to high school. Here he comes in late and leaves me all the work to do! He says you all were out bug hunting yesterday and he broke a cherry tree down. He had to stay two hours after school yesterday and work out money to pay on that cherry tree! Is that right?" "I guess it is," said Professor Herbert. "Well," said Pa, "this ain't no high school. It's a bug school, a lizard school, a snake school! It ain't no school no how!"

"I was only doing my duty, Mr. Sexton, and following the course of study the state provided us with." said Professor Herbert. "Course o' study," said Pa, "what study, bug study? Taking young ones to the woods and their poor old Ma's and Pa's at home slaving to keep them in school and give them education!" "We were not only hunting snakes, toads, flowers, butterflies, lizards," said Professor Herbert, "but I was hunting dry timothy grass to put in an incubator and raise some protozoa." "I don't know what that is," said Pa. "The incubator is the new-fangled way of cheating the hens and raising chickens. I ain't so sure about the breed of chickens you mentioned."

"You've heard of germs, Mr. Sexton, haven't you?" said Professor Herbert. "Yes," said Pa, "but I don't believe in germs. I'm sixty-five years old and I ain't seen one yet!" "You can't see them with your naked eye," said Professor Herbert. "Just stay with me in the high school today. I have a few things to show you. That scum on your teeth has germs in it." "What," said Pa, "you mean to tell me I've got germs on my teeth!" "Yes," said Professor Herbert. "I don't mean to dispute your word," said Pa, "but I don't believe it. I don't believe I have germs on my teeth!" "Stay with me today and I'll show you”, said Professor Herbert. "I'll stay with you," said Pa. "I want to see the germs on my teeth. I've never seen one in my life."

12. The narrator thought that the most suitable punishment for him under the circumstances was to …

1) be detained after school.

2) be whipped by the Professor.

3) be whipped by his father.

4) find a way to pay the money.

13. The pedagogical credo of the narrator’s father “If you spare the rod you spoil the child” implies that …

1) the corporal punishment is the most effective way to bring up children.

2) you should use the rod sparingly when you deal with children.

3) the more you use the rod, the more spoilt the child becomes.

4) parents shouldn’t spoil children by giving them too much freedom.

14. Professor Herbert suggested that the narrator should …

1) do some odd jobs to earn the money he had to repay his teacher.

2) take up the job of a school cleaner to help his family.

3) help Professor Herbert with the household chores like cleaning windows.

4) look for a job for at least twenty-five cents an hour.

15. The narrator’s Pa was angry with his son because …

1) his son was reluctant to help him with the farm work.

2) his son was unwilling to explain why he was late.

3) he had to do his son’s share of routine work on the farm.

4) his son had broken down a cherry tree.

16.The narrator’s father went to the county high school in order to …

1) find out if his son had really been offered a job.

2) forbid Professor Herbert to detain his son after school.

3) apologize for his son and pay the money for the broken tree.

4) express his dissatisfaction with the school curriculum.

17. When Professor Herbert used the word “protozoa”, which the narrator’s Pa didn’t know, the father …

1) felt humiliated by his own ignorance.

2) asked the Professor to clarify the meaning of the word.

3) understood the meaning of the word from the context.

4) thought it was a new breed of chickens.

18. The narrator’s father made up his mind to stay at school for a day in order to …

1) make sure his son was taught properly.

2) satisfy his natural curiosity.

3) expose Professor Herbert as a charlatan.

4) prove that his teeth were absolutely clean.


Сообщить об ошибке

Опишите ошибку в задании подробнее...


Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12–18. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.


The last time I saw my father was in Grand Central Station. I was going from my grandmother's in the Adirondacks to a cottage on the Cape that my mother had rented, and I wrote my father that I would be in New York between trains for an hour and a half, and asked if we could have lunch together. His secretary wrote to say that he would meet me at the information booth at noon, and at twelve o'clock sharp I saw him coming through the crowd.

He was a stranger to me – my mother divorced him three years ago and I hadn't been with him since – but as soon as I saw him I felt that he was my father, my flesh and blood, my future and my doom. I knew that when I was grown I would be something like him; I would have to plan my campaigns within his limitations. He was a big, good-looking man, and I was terribly happy to see him again.

He struck me on the back and shook my hand. "Hi, Charlie," he said. "Hi, boy. I'd like to take you up to my club, but it's in the Sixties, and if you have to catch an early train I guess we'd better get something to eat around here." He put his arm around me, and I smelled my father the way my mother sniffs a rose. It was a rich compound of whiskey, after-shave lotion, shoe polish, woollens, and the rankness of a mature male. I hoped that someone would see us together. I wished that we could be photographed. I wanted some record of our having been together.

We went out of the station and up a side street to a restaurant. It was still early, and the place was empty. The bartender was quarrelling with a delivery boy, and there was one very old waiter in a red coat down by the kitchen door. We sat down, and my father hailed the waiter in a loud voice. "Kellner!" he shouted. "Garcon! You!" His boisterousness in the empty restaurant seemed out of place. "Could we have a little service here!" he shouted. Then he clapped his hands. This caught the waiter's attention, and he shuffled over to our table.

"Were you clapping your hands at me?" he asked.
"Calm down, calm down," my father said. "It isn't too much to ask of you – if it wouldn't be too much above and beyond the call of duty, we would like a couple of Beefeater Gibsons."
"I don't like to be clapped at," the waiter said.
"I should have brought my whistle," my father said. "I have a whistle that is audible only to the ears of old waiters. Now, take out your little pad and your little pencil and see if you can get this straight: two Beefeater Gibsons. Repeat after me: two Beefeater Gibsons."
"I think you'd better go somewhere else," the waiter said quietly.
"That," said my father, "is one of the most brilliant suggestions I have ever heard. Come on, Charlie."

I followed my father out of that restaurant into another. He was not so boisterous this time. Our drinks came, and he cross-questioned me about the baseball season. He then struck the edge of his empty glass with his knife and began shouting again. "Garcon! You! Could we trouble you to bring us two more of the same."

"How old is the boy?" the waiter asked.
"That," my father said, "is none of your business."
"I’m sorry, sir," the waiter said, "but I won’t serve the boy another drink."

"Well, I have some news for you," my father said. "I have some very interesting news for you. This doesn’t happen to be the only restaurant in New York. They’ve opened another on the corner. Come on, Charlie."

He paid the bill, and I followed him out of that restaurant into another …

12.The narrator was looking forward to meeting with his father because he

1) expected to get a valuable present from him.

2) missed the feeling of being with him.

3) wanted to stay with him in New York.

4) hoped that his parents would get back together.

13.The narrator’s request to meet was accepted by his father

1) with great pleasure.

2) unwillingly.

3) in business-like manner.

4) with much hope and expectation.

14.The narrator wanted to be photographed with his father because

1) he was proud of his father’s good looks.

2) he wished to remember their moments together.

3) it was the happiest time of his life.

4) he wanted to boast of his father to his friends.

15.The father did not invite his son to his club because

1) the son was pressed for time to catch a train.

2) it was a closed club with no children allowed.

3) the man feared that his son would not behave properly.

4) it was necessary to book in advance to enter the club.

16.The father’s behaviour in the first restaurant was inappropriate as he

1) was too boisterous in an empty restaurant.

2) tried to boast of his knowledge of foreign languages.

3) could not afford to pay the bill.

4) treated the waiter in a rude manner.

17.The waiter in the next restaurant refused to bring them more drinks as

1) the restaurant was closing soon.

2) the son looked pale and faint.

3) the boy was too young to drink alcohol.

4) the waiter got angry with the son.

18.The title of the story “Reunion” actually implies that the

1) son found his lost father after decades of separation.

2) son now would be living together with his father.

3) “father – son” relations is what both sides feel the need for.

4) son made an attempt to re-establish relations with his father.


Сообщить об ошибке

Опишите ошибку в задании подробнее...


Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

The London Marathon celebrates its 23rd birthday. That is 23 years of stresses and strains, blisters and sore bits, and incredible tales. Somehow, I truly managed to run four of them. And I have medals to prove it. It seemed like a good idea at the time. I watched the inaugural London Marathon on March 29th, 1981. It seemed extraordinary that normal people would want to run 26 miles and 385 yards. And, it must be said, they looked strange and not quite steady at the end of it all. There are, indeed, terrible tales of people losing consciousness by the time they reach that glorious finishing line. But I was captivated. I knew I had to do it.

Three years later I was living in London, not far from Greenwich where the event begins, and it seemed the perfect opportunity to give it a go. I was only a short train ride from the starting line, but more than 26 miles from the finish. “Who cares?” I thought. By the end I did. The moment I crossed that finishing line, and had that medal placed around my neck, was one of the finest in my life. The sense of achievement was immense. It was a mad thing to do, and ultimately pointless. But knowing that I’d run a Marathon – that most historic of all distant races – felt incredible.

London provides one of the easiest of all the officially sanctioned marathons because most of it is flat. Yes, there are the cobblestones while running through the Tower of London, and there are the quiet patches where crowds are thin and you are crying out for some encouragement – those things matter to the alleged “fun” runners like myself, the serious runners don’t think of such things.

This year London will attract unprecedented number of athletes, a lot of title holders among them. It is set to witness what is probably the greatest field ever for a marathon. In the men’s race, for example, among numerous applicants there’s the holder of the world’s best time, Khalid Khannouchi of the USA; the defending champion El Mouriz of Morocco; Ethiopia’s Olympic bronze-medallist Tesfaye Tola. And, making his marathon debut, is one of the finest long distance runners of all time Haile Gebrselassie.

Since 1981, almost half a million people have completed the London Marathon, raising more than $125 million for charity. For the majority of the runners, this is what it is all about. It is for charity, for fun, for self-development. It is a wonderful day. I have run it with poor training, with proper training. And I have always loved it.

It’s crazy, and it’s one of the greatest things I’ve ever done. If you want to feel as though you’ve achieved something, run a marathon.

12. Participation in the London Marathon resulted for the author in

1)stresses and strains.

2)blisters and sore bits.

3)memorable medals.

4)incredible tales.

13. When the author watched the end of the first marathon he saw people who were

1)extraordinary steady.

2)feeling weak and exhausted.

3)losing consciousness.

4)having a glorious time.

14. The reason for the author’s participation in the marathon was the fact that he

1)was fascinated by it.

2)lived not far from its finishing line.

3)wanted to receive a medal.

4)wanted to do something incredible.

15. “By the end I did” means that the author

1)found the distance suitable.

2)found the distance challenging.

3)decided to take part in the marathon.

4)eventually took a train to the finish.

16. According to the author, the London Marathon is one of the easiest because

1)it goes through the Tower of London.

2)there are quiet patches without crowds.

3)many “fun” runners participate in it.

4)its course does not slope up or down.

17. “… the greatest field ever for a marathon” means that the marathon

1)will take place on a big field.

2)is to be run by the famous runners only.

3)will be witnessed by more people.

4)will welcome a huge number of sportsmen.

18. According to the author, one should run the London Marathon to

1)raise money for charity.

2)get some training.

3)feel self-fulfillment.

4)have fun in a crazy way.


Сообщить об ошибке

Опишите ошибку в задании подробнее...


Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Although many countries are saddled with stereotypes, in Switzerland’s case they’re dead on.

The alpine nation really is highly efficient. And meticulously punctual. Clean, too. For chronically tardy, resolutely inefficient (not to mention slovenly) people like myself, a visit to Switzerland yields a cocktail of emotions: awe, relief and a dash of irritation.

For the Swiss, punctuality is not merely a nicety, a bonbon in the buffet of life. It is a source of deep contentment. The Swiss, it seems, subscribe to the German philosopher Schopenhauer’s definition of happiness as “an absence of misery”. They derive genuine joy from the fact that life unfolds on time and in a highly efficient manner.

Whenever I visit Switzerland, I go through several stages of punctuality reaction. At first it delights me, especially if I’m coming from neighbouring Italy or France with their rather more flexible approach to timekeeping. By contrast, life in Switzerland is sturdy and dependable, like a Saint Bernard dog. If someone says they will meet me at 2 pm, they arrive at 2 pm not 2:05 (or 1:55, for that matter). I like this. For a while. Then it annoys me. The extreme punctuality strikes me as a kind of stinginess, and I find myself agreeing with the English writer Evelyn Waugh who said that “punctuality is the virtue of the bored.” That is unfair though, and finally, invariably, I come to appreciate Swiss punctuality for what it is: a deep expression of respect for other people. A punctual person is a considerate one. By showing up on time – for everything – a Swiss person is saying, in effect, “I value your time and, by extension, I value you.”

It’s no coincidence that the Swiss are the world’s watchmakers. Which came first – the precise timekeepers or the precise people? Hard to say, but the result is the same: a nation where the trains – and everything else – really do run on time. Then there are the toilets. “Have you seen our public toilets?” asked Dieter, a Swiss doctor, over an afternoon beer in Geneva. “They are very clean.” He’s right. Swiss toilets are indeed clean, as is everything else too. In some countries it would be suicidal to drink the tap water. In Switzerland it is fashionable to do so; the water comes from natural springs.

How to explain this cleanliness and punctuality? No one knows for sure. But a popular theory is that, historically, it stems from the unforgiving, mountainous terrain. Either you planted your crops on time and harvested them promptly or, well, you starved.

Punctuality, sadly, is a dying art in many parts of the world. Mobile phones are partly to blame. We feel less compelled to arrive on time if we can always text to say we’re running a few minutes late. I don’t sense that is happening in Switzerland, though.

Susan Jane Gilman, an American author who has lived in Geneva for the past 11 years, recounted with awe how she’s “never had a taxi that arrived late, that wasn’t there exactly when it said it would be”. She marvelled at how, for instance, when she’s ordered a new refrigerator, the company gives her a precise two-hour window for delivery – and sticks to it.

Switzerland has changed her. Once a “chronically late person”, Gilman is now meticulously punctual. “I feel a greater respect for people’s time,” she said, sounding very Swiss.

The flip side, though, is that when she visits New York, her hometown, she is annoyed by the relative lack of punctuality: the bus that is 15 minutes behind schedule or doesn’t show up at all, the friends who saunter into a restaurant 30 minutes late. “My friends will say ‘Suze hon, this isn’t Switzerland, relax. They’ll hold our table.’ but I get annoyed if people are late.”

Punctuality is not without its drawbacks. For one thing, it creates a kind of bunching effect. Coffee shops in Swiss cities tend to be crowded at 4pm every day because everybody takes their coffee break at exactly 4pm. In apartment buildings, residents must abide by a strict weekday schedule for use of the laundry room.

Extreme punctuality also creates an expectation, and if that expectation is not met, disappointment ensues. On those rare occasions that things do not function smoothly, the Swiss get flustered – and angry. Recently, the country was thrown into a tizzy with the disturbing news that only 87.5% of the trains run by the federal railroad arrived within three minutes of their scheduled time, shy of their 89% target.

But perhaps that frustration has some merit. After all, Switzerland has some fierce competition when it comes to punctuality. In Japan, the Shinkansen bullet trains make the Swiss railroads look downright tardy. The average annual delay? Thirty six seconds.

12. What does the word “tardy” from the 1st paragraph mean?

  1. Dirty
  2. Lazy
  3. Late
  4. Ignorant

13. What is true about how the Swiss treat punctuality?

  1. It’s a satisfying part of life
  2. It’s a part of etiquette
  3. It’s a taboo concept
  4. It’s a miserable part of life

14. What stage of punctuality reaction is not mentioned in the text?

  1. Aversion
  2. Accepting
  3. Annoyance
  4. Joy

15. What is the reason for Swiss punctuality, according to one theory mentioned in the text?

  1. The Swiss are the watchmakers
  2. Switzerland never participated in wars
  3. Switzerland’s geographical position
  4. The Swiss certain agricultural customs

16. What disadvantage does punctuality cause to Susan?

  1. Her friends get annoyed with her
  2. She gets annoyed with her friends
  3. The restaurants don’t hold the tables up
  4. If the service is late, she is angry

17. What is the drawback of being punctual mentioned in the text?

  1. You get frustrated if something breaks your plan
  2. You can’t get service on time
  3. Your expectations are too undetermined
  4. You can’t use laundry

18. What is the tone of the last paragraph?

  1. Respectful
  2. Mocking
  3. Indifferent
  4. Ironic

Сообщить об ошибке

Опишите ошибку в задании подробнее...


Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12- 18. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

First Train Trip

I must have been about eight when I made my first train trip. I think I was in second grade at that time. It was midsummer, hot and wet in central Kansas, and time for my aunt Winnie’s annual vacation from the store, where she worked as a clerk six days a week. She invited me to join her on a trip to Pittsburgh, fifty miles away, to see her sister, my aunt Alice. "Sally, would you like to go there by train or by car?" asked aunt Winnie. "Oh, please, by train, aunt Winnie, dear! We’ve been there by car three times already!"

Alice was one of my favourite relatives and I was delighted to be invited to her house. As I was the youngest niece in Mother’s big family, the aunties all tended to spoil me and Alice was no exception. She kept a boarding house for college students, a two-storey, brown brick building with comfortable, nicely decorated rooms at the corner of 1200 Kearney Avenue. She was also a world-class cook, which kept her boarding house full of young people. It seemed to me that their life was so exciting and joyful.

Since I’d never ridden a train before, I became more and more excited as the magic day drew near. I kept questioning Mother about train travel, but she just said, "Wait. You’ll see." For an eight-year-old, waiting was really difficult, but finally the big day arrived. Mother had helped me pack the night before, and my little suitcase was full with summer sundresses, shorts and blouses, underwear and pyjamas. I was reading Billy Whiskers, a fantastic story about a goat that once made a train trip to New York, and I had put that in as well. It was almost midnight when I could go to bed at last.

We arrived at the station early, purchased our tickets and found our car. I was fascinated by the face-to-face seats so some passengers could ride backwards. Why would anyone, I thought, want to see where they’d been? I only wanted to see what lay ahead for me.

Finally, the conductor shouted, "All aboard!" to the people on the platform. They climbed into the cars, the engineer blew the whistle and clanged the bell, and we pulled out of the station.

This train stopped at every town between my home in Solomon and Pittsburgh. It was known as the "milk train" because at one time it had delivered goods as well as passengers to these villages. I looked eagerly at the signs at each station. I’d been through all these towns by car, but this was different. The shaky ride of the coaches, the soft brown plush seats, the smells of the engine drifting back down the track and in through the open windows made this trip far more exotic.

The conductor, with his black uniform and shiny hat, the twinkling signals that told the engineer when to stop and go, thrilled me. To an adult, the trip must have seemed painfully slow, but I enjoyed every minute.

Aunt Winnie had packed a lunch for us to eat along the way as there was no dining car in the train. I was dying to know just what was in that big shopping bag she carried, but she, too, said, "Wait. You’ll see." Midway, Aunt Winnie pulled down her shopping bag from the luggage rack above our seats. My eyes widened as she opened it and began to take out its contents. I had expected lunchmeat sandwiches, but instead there was a container of fried chicken, two hardboiled eggs, bread and butter wrapped in waxed paper, crisp radishes and slim green onions from Winnie’s garden, as well as rosy sliced tomatoes. She had brought paper plates, paper cups and some of the "everyday" silverware. A large bottle of cold tea was well wrapped in a dishtowel; the ice had melted, but it was still chilly. I cautiously balanced my plate on my knees and ate, wiping my lips and fingers with a large paper napkin. This was living!

When we had cleaned our plates, Aunt Winnie looked into the bag one more time. The best treat of all appeared ⎯ homemade chocolate cakes! Another cup of cold tea washed these down and then we carefully returned the remains of the food and silverware to the bag, which Aunt Winnie put into the corner by her feet.

"Almost there," said my aunt, looking out of the window at the scenery passing by. And sure enough, as we pulled into the Pittsburgh station we immediately caught sight of aunt Alice, waiting for us, a smile like the sun lighting up her face, arms wide open. We got off the train and she led us past the taxi rank and the bus stop to her car that was parked near the station. And all the way to her home she was asking about my impressions of my first train trip and I could hardly find the words to express all the thrill and excitement that filled me.

12. The first time Sally travelled by train was when she1) had to move to her aunt Alice.

2)had a summer vacation at school.

3)went to Pittsburgh for the first time in her life.

4)visited her aunt Alice together with aunt Winnie.

13. Aunt Alice made her living by

1)working as a cook.

2)keeping a boarding house.

3)decorating houses.

4)working as a teacher at college.

14. Sally was waiting for her first train trip so impatiently that she

1)packed her things long before the trip.

2)lost her appetite a week before the trip.

3)asked her Mother many questions about train trips.

4)couldn't sleep the night before the trip.

15. Sally didn’t like the idea of riding backwards because

1)it could make her sick.

2)she could miss her station.

3)she could miss the conductor.

4)she wanted to see where she was going.

16. The trip to Pittsburgh by train seemed so exotic to Sally because

1)she had never travelled so far from her native town.

2) travelling by train was very different from a car ride.

3)she had never travelled in comfort.

4)she had never travelled without her parents.

17. Sally thought that at lunchtime they would have

1)meat sandwiches.

2)bread and butter with coffee.

3)fried chicken, eggs and vegetables.

4)tea with chocolate cakes.

18.Aunt Alice was waiting for Sally and aunt Winnie

1)at home.

2)in her car.

3)on the platform.

4)at the bus stop.


Сообщить об ошибке

Опишите ошибку в задании подробнее...


Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12–18. Запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа.

Chronic lack of sleep affects one in three British workers

One in three British workers suffers from poor sleep, research shows, with stress, computers and taking work home blamed for the lack of quality sleep. Some employees get fewer than five hours sleep a night, only one in seven feels completely refreshed when they wake and more women have poor shut-eye than men. The alarming findings emerged from a study of self-assessments completed by 38,784 staff working in the UK for firms such as telecoms firm, O2, drugs developer, Quintiles and medical technology manufacturer, Medtronic.

A third was dissatisfied with the amount and quality of their sleep, with 8.4% saying they were "very unhappy" with it, and another 24.4% describing themselves as "unhappy". When asked how they felt 30 minutes after getting up, only 15.5% said "refreshed". Of the others, 3.3% said they were "exhausted", 24% said "unrefreshed" and 57.2% were still "a little tired".

While experts say that everyone should ideally get seven to eight hours sleep a night, only 38.5% of the 38,784 respondents did so. More had between five and seven hours (45%), only a lucky 10% reported sleeping for eight to nine hours and one in 100 enjoyed more than nine hours.

When researchers combined those results to give each respondent an overall "sleep score" out of 100, some 33.8% got a mark of less than 30 — the lowest category. That means someone either has, or is at high risk of developing, a sleeping problem. "This research is telling us that a large number of working adults, one in three in the UK, has a sleeping problem," said Dr Tony Massey, medical director of Vielife, the health and productivity firm that carried out the assessments between 2009 and 2011. "A very concerning number of British workers get too little sleep." Britain is near the top of an international league table for lack of sleep. A Vielife study of 116,452 staff in America found that 23.4% scored poorly for sleep.

The extent of inadequate rest has prompted fears that many people are too tired to do their jobs properly, with some so sleep-deprived their brains are as confused as if they had consumed too much alcohol.

"Too few people practice sleep hygiene," said Massey. "That involves little things that people can do without professional help, like ensuring your room is dark and quiet, getting to bed at the same time every night — just like a two-year-old — reading a book, which is a proven relaxant, and not looking at bright screens, such as the TV or computer, for an hour before you go to bed as that will disturb your sleep."

The growing tendency for employees to do extra work in the evenings and at weekends, which may have risen in the recession, also seems to be linked to poor sleep. "More people are scrunching the golden hour before they go to sleep, and they are paying the price in that their sleep isn't refreshing and they end up in a vicious cycle of fatigue, poor productivity and then feeling that they have to do the same again the next day to compensate," said Massey.

The best guarantee of good quality shut-eye is to work five days a week and sleep seven to eight hours a night. Five-days-a-week staff had the best sleep score, while those getting seven to eight hours a night scored 72.7.

"These are very worrying findings because lack of sleep is a risk factor for a whole range of serious health problems, such as stroke and heart disease," said Massey.

12. Which of the following is mentioned among the reasons for poorer sleep?

1) work for telecom firms

2) consumption of drugs

3) work done at home

4) lack of communication

13. According to the research, just about … percent of people have the recommended number of sleeping hours.

1) forty

2) twenty

3) thirty

4) ten

14. Paragraph 4 stresses that …

1) the “sleep score” in Britain is relatively low.

2) many people in Britain are unaware of sleeping disorders.

3) he number of Britons who don’t get enough sleep is alarming.

4) British workers get more sleep than American ones.

15. The inadequate nighttime rest of employees might result in …

1) brain damage

2) inefficiency at work

3) lack of job satisfaction

4) problems with alcohol

16. What does “sleep hygiene” NOT involve?

1) professional help

2) a darkened room

3) a relaxing book

4) regular bedtime

17. The phrase “vicious cycle” in paragraph 7 means …

1) a sudden ware of tiredness

2) a course of everyday events

3) a large amount of extra work

4) a repetitive cycle of poor sleep consequences

18. What, according to the article, is important for good quality sleep?

1) higher productivity at work

2) a five-day working week

3) five to seven hours of nighttime sleep

4) absence of health problems


Сообщить об ошибке

Опишите ошибку в задании подробнее...


Решено верно


Решено верно


Решено верно


Решено верно


Решено верно


Решено верно


Решено верно


Решено верно


Решено верно


Решено верно


Решено верно


Решено верно